Perspektif Hak Asasi Manusia atas Tindakan Nabi Muhammad Saw. terhadap Pelaku Penodaan Agama dan Implikasinya terhadap Ketentuan Hukum di Indonesia

Muh Tasrif

Abstract


Abstract
The existence of Presidential Decree of Indonesian Republic no. 1/PNPS 1965 about the prevention of abuse and/or religious desecration becomes public discussion in homeland of reformation period. The researcher sees the constitution is not compatible with the principles of religious freedom which is guaranteed by 1945 Constitution and the international legal instruments about human rights. However many Muslim Leaders say that the constitution related with Islam guidance as told in Quran and Hadith. Based on the contexts, showing problems about how their arguments can be seen from human right perspective and how the implication toward the terms of law in Indonesia. To answer the problems, the writer elaborates the forms of Prophet Muhammad SAW’s Actions toward religious desecration actors and connected on human right perspective and its implications toward the terms of law in Indonesia. The religious desecration actors are treated variously by Prophet Muhammad SAW:, some are allowed even apologized and the others are punished.
Keywords: Human right, Prophet Muhammad’s Action, Religious desecration


Abstrak
Keberadaan Penetapan Presiden Republik Indonesia No. 1/ PNPS Tahun 1965 Tentang Pencegahan Penyalahgunaan dan/ atau Penodaan Agama menjadi perbincangan publik di tanah air pada Masa Reformasi. Pengamat melihat UU tersebut tidak kompatibel dengan prinsip-prinsip kebebasan beragama yang dijamin oleh Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 dan instrumen hukum internasional tentang hak asasi manusia. Namun demikian, banyak tokoh Muslim yang berpandangan bahwa UU tersebut bersesuaian dengan ajaran Islam sebagaimana disebut dalam dalil al-Quran dan Hadis. Berdasarkan konteks tersebut, muncul persoalan tentang bagaimana memahami dalil-dalil tersebut bila dilihat dari perspektif hak asasi manusia dan bagaimana implikasinya terhadap ketentuan hukum di Indonesia. Untuk menjawab persoalan tersebut, penulis menguraikan bentuk- bentuk tindakan Nabi Muhammad saw. terhadap para pelaku penodaan agama dan mengaitkannya dengan perspektif hak asasi manusia dan implikasinya terhadap ketentuan hukum di Indonesia. Para pelaku penodaan agama diperlakukan secara beragam oleh Nabi Muhammad saw.: sebagian dibiarkan bahkan dimaafkan dan sebagian yang lain dihukum.

Kata Kunci: Hak asasi, Tindakan Nabi, Penodaan agama

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbas, Shemeem Burney, Pakistan’s Blasphemy Laws: From Islamic Empires to the Taliban (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2013).

Ahmed, Akbar, “Ibn Khaldun’s Understanding of Civilizations and the Dilemmas of Islam and the West Today,” The Middle East Journal; Winter 2002.

Alam, S M Shamsul, “Women in the Era of modernity and Islamic fundamentalism: The case of Taslima Nasrin of Bangladesh,” Signs, Winter 1998.

Alatas, Syed Farid, “Contemporary Muslim Revival: The Case of “Protestant Islam”,” The Muslim World; Jul 2007.

Armanios, Febe; Bogaç Ergene, “A Christian Martyr under Mamluk Justice: The Trials of Salib (d. 1512) according to Coptic and Muslim Sources,” The Muslim World; Jan 2006.

Asad, Talal, Wendy Brown, Judith Butler and Saba Mahmood, Is Critique Secular? Blasphemy, Injury, and Free Speech, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009.

Bhat, Ali Muhammad, “Freedom of Expression from Islamic Perspective,” Journal of Media and Communication Studies, Vol. 6, 2014.

Cabantous, Alain, Blasphemy: Impious Speech in the West from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century, New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.

Caenegem, R. C. van, “Historical Reflections on Islam and the Occident,” European Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2012.

Dacey, Austin, The Future of Blasphemy: Speaking of the Sacred in an Age of Human Rights, London, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012.

Esposito, John L, “The Future of Islam and U.S.-Muslim Relations,”

Political Science Quarterly; Fall 2011.

Al-Hanbali, Muhammad bin ‘Aliy bin Muhammad al-Ba‘liy, Mukhtasar al-Sârim al-Maslûl ‘alâ Syâtim al-Rasûl li Syaiykh al-Islâm Ibn Taymiyyah, Mekah: Dâr ‘Âlim al-Fawâid, 1422 H.

Hanna, Siti, “Pencegahan Penodaan Agama (Kajian atas UU No. 1 Tahun 1965),” Religia, Vol. 13 No. 2, Oktober 2010, hlm.

-174.

Harkness, S Suzan J; Magid, Mohamed; Roberts, Jameka; Richardson, Michael PS, “Crossing the Line? Freedom of Speech and Religious Sensibilities,” Political Science & Politics; Apr 2007.

Hasan, Noorhaidi, “Democracy, Religious Diversity, and Blasphemy Law in Indonesia,” Makalah AICIS XIV Balikpapan, 2014.

Kamali, Mohammad Hashim, Freedom of Expression in Islam,

Cambridge, England: Islamic Texts Society, 1997.

Khalidi, Tarif, Images of Muhammad: Narratives of the Prophet in Islam across the Centuries, New York: Doubleday, 2009.

Leo, Leonard A; Felice D Gaer; Elizabeth K Cassidy, “Protecting Religions From “Defamation”: A Threat To Universal Human Rights,” Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy; Spring 2011.

Levi, Isaac, “Identity and Conflict,” Social Research; Spring 2007. Levy, Leonard W., Blasphemy: Verbal Offense Against the Sacred, From

Moses to Salmon Rushdie, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.

Lippman, Thomas W, “The Malaise of Islam,” The SAIS Review of International Affairs; Summer 2006.

March, Andrew F., “The Maqsad of Hifz al-Dīn: Is Liberal Religious Freedom Sufficient for The Sharīah?” dalam Islam and Civilisational Renewal. T.t.

Marsh, Joss, Word Crimes: Blasphemy, Culture, and Literature

in Nineteenth-Century England, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Mcgarry, Molly, “Base, Vile, and Depraved: Blasphemy and Other Moral Genealogies,” Qui Parle, Spring/Summer 2014.

Nash, David (ed.), Silenced: How Apostasy and Blasphemy Codes are Choking Freedom Worldwide, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Nash, David, Blasphemy in the Christian World: A History, Oxford- New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Novak, Michael, The Universal Hunger for Liberty: Why the Clash of Civilizations Is Not Inevitable, Basic Books, 2004.

Al-Qurasyiy, Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hâsin, Al-Istihzâ’ bi al- Dîn: Ahkâmuh wa Âtsâruh, Jedah, Beirut, Kairo: Dâr Ibn al-Jawziy, 2005.

Sanga, Jaina C., Salman Rushdie’s Postcolonial Metaphors: Migration, Translation, Hybridity, Blasphemy, and Globalization, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Tim Penulis CRCS Universitas Gadjah Mada, “Antara ‘Penodaan’ dan ‘Kerukunan’: Makalah Posisi mengenai UU No. 1/ PNPS/1965,” Maret 2010.

Visconsi, Elliott, “The Invention of Criminal Blasphemy: Rex v.

Taylor (1676),” Representations; Summer 2008.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

ALHIKMAH Islamic Studies Institute (STAI ALHIKMAH) Jakarta Jl. Jeruk Purut No. 10 Cilandak Timur Pasar Minggu Jakarta Selatan 12650 Telp/Fax. (021) 7890521 E-mail: staialhikmahjakarta10@gmail.com/jurnal_hikmah@yahoo.com